Introduction To Travel In Eritrea

Introduction To Travel In Eritrea

I shuffled up to the counter.  I was hungry.

“Can I please have spaghetti with tomato sauce?” I inquired.  I had been given a hamburger for dinner, but I had no intention of eating it.  It was swamped in mayonnaise. A big no-no for me.  And to be honest the meat looked highly suspect.  I wasn’t that courageous.  Spaghetti equals safe.

“Hold on a moment,” the girl responded as she headed to the kitchen.  She returned a moment later.  “No spaghetti”.

For a moment, I was dejected.  I then spied a giant poster next to the register.  “Eat delicious pizza!”  Great, I thought.  “I will take one pizza please”.

“Sorry, no pizza,” she responded curtly.  “Only hamburger.”

I felt my depression setting in again.  I took a final swig out of my brown-bottled Asmara bottle of beer.  “OK, one hamburger, but please no mayonnaise”.  My hunger won out.

“No hamburger.  All gone.”

Typically at this point, I would get frustrated, but instead I just started to giggle.

“OK,” I smiled.  “One more beer”.

“No beer, all gone”.  I surrendered to Africa.

I was in Asmara, the capital of the east African country of Eritrea.  For summer, the weather was perfect.  Not hot or humid, but sunny and comfortable.  The secret was being at over 7,000 feet.  Asmara is dotted with numerous cafes, bars, and cinemas.  The architecture for Africa is an outlier.  It is Italian style art deco.  Eritrea was a former colony, and in fact, its capital was known as Piccola Roma, Little Rome.  The city is highly walkable, and Eritreans still take an evening passeggiata.

introduction to travel in eritrea

introduction to travel in eritrea

But this highly agreeable image is tarnished by one of the most repressive governments in the world.  It is ranked dead last in the press freedom index.  Eritrea has had a painful history.  As a colony of Italy under Mussolini, Eritreans were subject to vicious apartheid like laws.  After the Italians left after WWII, they were mashed into a federation with much larger neighbor Ethiopia.  After a thirty year war, where thousands died, Eritrea gained its independence in 1993.  One more hot war followed in 1998 with Ethiopia.

Eritrea is gripped with grinding poverty.  Per capita income is sub $1,000 a year.  GDP is comprised of 32% of remittances from overseas.  The populace is threatened with the cloud of future wars.  And under this threat, the government maintains conscription, and for some it is indefinite and equated to slavery, for the military and national service.    The poverty and the conscription are contributing to a flight from Eritrea.  Eritreans are desperate to escape the hold of the government.

While treated warmly by the Eritreans, the government is not a big fan of tourists either.  Approximately, Eritrea receives 100,000 international arrivals a year.  It is the 24th least visited country with most recent data from 2011, sandwiched between The Gambia and Palau.

Anecdotally, from looking at my fellow passengers on the plane, the majority of those arrivals are diasporan Eritreans.  Getting a visa to visit can be very challenging.  Eritrea has only 4,000 hotel rooms.  The MGM in Vegas has nearly 7,000 rooms alone.


This is a small airport.  When you enter, there is a small Visa office to the left, if you are doing Visa On Arrival that you have secured before you have arrived.  Not a difficult process, but they are slow.  Fill out one form, pay $70, and waited about an hour.  Walk through immigration and get your passport stamped.  There are no ATMs but there is a money exchange at the government rate.


Taxi from the airport is a mafia-like 500 Nakfa.  To go back to the airport it is 250 Nakfa.  The taxis in town which are numerous can be used in a share-taxi fashion at 15 Nakfa a person.  Or you can use the taxi in a private fashion.  No meters, start negotiating.


I imagine there is an Eritrean Wizard of Oz behind the curtain attempting to hold everything together.  While you might have a shower, you might not have water.  And if you do, it might be painfully ice cold.  And when you have water, you might not have electricity.  Eritrea requires a patchwork of generators and water deliveries to provide these basic services.

introduction to travel in eritrea

Shower Time!


This is quite the tease.  Internet cafes are ubiquitous in Asmara.  They cost anywhere from $1 to $5 per hour.  But they really don’t work.  Three sessions lasting three hours produced 4 emails.  When in Eritrea you are mostly off the grid.  As of 2012, there are 48,692 internet users in Eritrea. This ranks 180th in the world at 0.8% of the population.

SIM Cards

You need to be a resident to get a SIM card in Eritrea.


Not having consistent delivery of water and electricity stresses the hygiene situation in the country.  As you might imagine, many kitchens/restaurants do not have running water and soap.  Without water, toilets do not flush.  At all times, drink bottled water which is accessible everywhere, but sometimes will be priced higher than beer, so substitute when desired.  Bring a supply of Purell, wetnaps, and toilet paper.


Pizza and pasta. There is a lot in Asmara.  For local food, you have injera and fish.  You can eat meals for $5-$10.


Cold, decent Asmara beer ranges in price from $1 to $5 (one expensive restaurant).  Closer to the $1 on average.  I also saw Heineken twice for $5.  I drank Eritrean rum for $1.  And bought a bottle for $20 in one of the bars.  The supply change is lacking in Eritrea.  On my last night, I went out for some drinks.  Two bars did not have any beer, and one ran out during the evening.

introduction to eritrea travel


Eritrea is off the grid when it comes to international banking.  There are no credit cards of ATMs.  In other words, bring all of the cash that you will need.  There is a black market with substantially better rates.  During my visit, I received 20 Nakfa for each $1.  The official rate according to is 10.5 as of June, 2016.

introduction to travel in eritrea


I won’t pretend to know how this works, but movement is restricted within Eritrea.  Even while visiting some sites in Asmara, I was denied entrance for not having the proper paperwork. Leaving Amara proper you will also need to have proper paperwork.  Hook up with a travel provider to help with permits as I did.


If you noted the link above, getting a visa can be somewhat difficult to Eritrea.  Many of my peers of shared tales of woe.  Getting rejected, not hearing back, etc.  I went with Young Pioneer Tours.  They arranged a visa on arrival.  I sent YPT my passport scan and an application.  A bit later, I received a letter of invite from Eritrea which I presented to immigration when I arrived in Eritrea.

Another option is to speak with the folks at Asmara Grande.  They might be able to help with a VOA.

Introduction To Travel In Eritrea

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15 thoughts on “Introduction To Travel In Eritrea

  1. Pingback: Eritrean TrainGlobalGaz

  2. Keith S

    Interesting post! OMG, what sites would they not let you visit? Did that depend on the country you were from, or are all foreigners restricted equally I wonder? Also, could you have gotten a SIM card from a resident, or would that be a big risk if the government found out?

    1. Ric Gazarian Post author

      For instance, in Asmara the capital is a very large cemetery of tanks and other vehicles from the war. There were several guys with Ak-47s there. Without the permit, we were escorted off the grounds.

      When you leave the capital you are also responsible to produce permits. I don’t think it matters what nationality you are.

      I am sure you could have angled your way to get a SIM card. But it is probably not even worth it, since the connections were so slow. Not sure what the govt. would do. Guess I can go back one more time and see what happens. 😉

  3. Pingback: Faces Of EritreaGlobalGaz

  4. Elisa

    Thanks for your great posts on Eritrea. I’m going in a few weeks! Do you think it’s necessary to contact a travel provider before arriving to arrange travel permits? I’m hoping to visit Massawa, Keren, and Dekemhare.

  5. Stephen

    Hi all, hoping someone can help me? I am a uk resident having real trouble finding out how to apply for an Eritrean tourist visa in London.
    Unable to make any contact by email or phone to the Eritrean embassy.
    Kind regards.

    1. Ric Gazarian Post author

      Stephen…Eritrean visa is one of the difficult ones to get. I went through Young Pioneer Tours, who arranged my visa on arrival. It was a very painless process.

      They worked with a local company who did the visa work. This is their website.

      Good luck! Let me know how it goes.

      1. Stephen

        Hi Ric.
        Many thanks for your response. So far planning my Eritrea trip has been really frustrating.
        Unable to have any joy regarding visa application so I will check out pioneer travel. How recently did you travel and do you think visa on arrival is still possible? Taking time off work to go in person to apply and collect would be very expensive and lose me two days holiday. Thank you for help and I will keep in touch if you don’t mind?

        1. Ric Gazarian Post author

          I was there in May of 2016 with YPT. VOA is still possible, I had another friend go there in May of 2017. So going through YPT was seamless. Good luck and keep me in the loop.

      2. Stephen

        Hi Ric. Eritrea visa has beaten me for now. Everything indicating I had to go in person to London to secure my visa and I have no spare days this year to do that. Visa on arrival is no longer possible I believe.
        Much as I dislike organised and group travel I am thinking of going to Eritrea with lupine travel.
        Also planning a Congo river trip in the next few years and will need a tour for sure I think. Also impressed with Native eye trips to Niger, Chad and CAR. How are your travels?

        1. Ric Gazarian Post author

          Hey Stephen:

          Sorry to hear that, too frustrating.

          I would also consider speaking to Young Pioneer Tours for their Eritrean tour which is for their Indepdence Day.

          I went to Niger for a couple of days, just Niamey with a trip to Burkina Faso. Have not been to the others, but they are on my list. Have not heard of Native Eyes, but will check them out.

          I have a month trip to South America in August with Peru, Bolivia, Chile and Paraguay.


  6. Pingback: Eritrea - 101st CountryGlobalGaz

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